Units of NIV were established at
, Uttar Pradesh and Allapuzzha, Kerala to address arboviral infections
especially Japanese Encephalitis (JE).
The civil work on BSL-4 facility at MCC is expected to be
completed before the end of 2009, and soon the processing of acquiring
equipment would start. This adds to capabilities of BSL-3 labs at Pune,
Kolkata, Chennai, and Dibrugarh
NARI accredited by WHO to carry out anti-retroviral drug
resistance testing – (the only one in
South East Asia
NIV designated as H5 reference laboratory for
identified as WHO reference center for leishmania parasite and serum
Dengue antigen capture ELISA in infected and desiccated Ae
aegypti mosquitoes evaluated. Storage
at room temperature upto 4 weeks does not affect reactivity.
Giemsa staining method was found to be effective and simple
alternate to PCR for confirming the presence of Wolbachia spp in mosquitoes.
New algorithm for PCR assay for polio virus reduced the
period of testing from 28 to 14 days and intratypic differentiation from
14 days to 7 days.
An immunodiagnostic assay developed for detection of
Evaluated rapid diagnostic tests for malaria, resulting in
their introduction in the programme.
DNA–IT 52 PCR assay to differentiate the 5 individual sibling
species of An. culicifacies developed
of latex based agglutination technique for detection of leptosprial
antibody in acute phase.
In collaboration with Serum Institute of India a
recombinant hepatitis E vaccine developed and pre-clinical trial in
rhesus animal successfully completed
of Diagnostic assay for Chlamydia trachomatis. Target users- Public/
Private Hospitals, Diagnostic Labs
highly sensitive and species specific PCR for diagnosis of Kala-azar and
Post Kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis. This test was validated in endemic
area in large number of samples. This test was granted US Patent.
ELISA and other immunological tests for KA and PKDL diagnosis
a novel antigen that has potential
as a diagnostic as well as prognostic agent for KA.
Completed Phase-II expanded safety and acceptability study of
vaginal microbicide 1% Tenofovir Gel – 100% retention rate.
Overall safety profile of product was good.
Five clinical trials with new artemisinin combinations
successfully completed for malaria.
Combination therapies for visceral leishmaniasis evaluated (Ambisome,
Miltofosine and Paramomycin).
Efficacy and safety of 3 and 4 months moxiflox containing
regimen for pulmonary TB are underway.
Efficacy of combined immunotherapy and chemotherapy in
pulmonary tuberculosis is being evaluated
Two Phase-I studies for HIV vaccines were completed, AAV at
NARI, Pune and MVA based vaccine at TRC, Chennai. The vaccines were
found to be safe. Based on better immunogenicity, MVA is now being used
in Pune and Chennai in a prime-boost approach, where priming is done
with a DNA based vaccine.
Conducted Phase-III trial of rotavirus vaccine
Phase-II trial of bivalent killed whole cell oral cholera
vaccine VA 1.3 completed. Phase-III
Phase-I of 3-site measles aerosol vaccine completed, found to
be safe and immunogenic. A
pivotal trial for licensing to start in 2Q/3Q of
A recombinant protein-based vaccine for Chandipura developed.
Combination of this vaccine with DPT found to be stable in animal
Development of combined Hep E and B vaccine under progress.
Results so far are encouraging
ELISA-based hepatitis A diagnostic technology transferred to
A recombinant protein based, highly specific and sensitive
assay for the diagnosis of Hepatitis E developed.
methods and strategies
Applied for an Indian patent for a process for preparation of
Holey/Lacey Carbon Film (NICED).
an animal product free culture medium for propagation of leishmania
promastigote at RMRI using plants’ extracts.
Methodology to assess Health Related Quality of Life of
filarial patient for evaluating mobility management developed.
Risk map for lymphatic filariasis transmission created for
Tamil Nadu on GIS platform for delimitation of areas.
Co-administration of albendazole and DEC has been shown that
it is operationally feasible, safe for community use and has an edge
over DEC alone in terms of reducing new infections of lymphatic
DEC fortified common salt has been demonstrated to a
potential supplementary strategy to MDA for elimination of persistent
foci of lymphatic filariasis.
Process/technology for production of mosquito larvicide, Bacillus
thuringiensis var israelensis was transferred to a commercial
SRES – Malathion is three times more effective than DDT
spray in vector control.
Use of GIS and RS for prediction of kala azar epidemics.
The first batch of MPH students admitted at the ICMR School
of Public Health, NIE, Chennai.
Train the trainers workshop on Forensic Epidemiology at TRC/NIE,
Chennai was held.
Post graduate diploma in Medical Entomology revived.
Clinical Trial Registry of India launched in July 2007, 150
A repository of leishmania isolate started at RMRI,
H5N1 outbreaks occurred in West Bengal, Manipur, Tripura and
. All isolates belonged to
Clade-2.2, but were caused by three different introductions.
Provided confirmatory diagnostic tests for H1N1 flu virus
Acute Encephalitis syndrome in Eastern
area, occurred with JE as a
cause in less than 20% of cases. Enterovirus
as causative agent being
Acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis outbreak in Mumbai,
coxsackie virus A24v was incriminated.
Chikungunya outbreaks investigated in several states viz.
Kerala, Tamil Nadu,
Drugs and Clinical
efflux proteins of M.tuberculosis as potential
proteins of M. leprae as potential therapeutic target
a DNA chip
for identification of genes associated with growth and persistence of M.
tuberculosis in granuloma formation for development as
potential therapeutic agents
transfer of tibialis posterior muscle to reconstruct foot-drop
schizontocidal and gametocytocidal drug in the treatment of malaria;
quantify embroyogenesis in adult filarial parasites S.digitata
can be need as a tool for
role of nitric oxide and CD 36 deficiency in pathogenesis of severe
falciparum malaria can help to develop an adjunct therapy against severe
analogoues for macrofilaricidal activity.
Identification and use of
CD2 antigen in combination therapy along with conventional anti-leishmanial
drug in VL
for preparation of Cyclosporin A
for production of thrombinase, a blood clot dissolving enzyme from Bacillus
assay for testing anti-HIV activity of new molecules
An indigenously produced
polyherbal microbicide formulation Basant has been found
to be effective in prevention of C. trachomatis infection.
PCR-RFLP assay for identification of pathogenic mycobacteria
of electrophysiological parameters for easy diagnosis of nerve damage
methods of isolation of DNA of M. leprae from skin smears
Use of RLEP
and real time RT-PCR to detect live M. leprae from soil and water
A process for
the preparation of primers useful for detection of M.tuberculosis
for detection of AFB
of quadriplex PCR to identify different sero-groups of V.cholerae
for simultaneous detection of sporozoite,
blood meal and identification of sibling species from a single mosquito
to evaluate vector competence of other anophelies in malaria
diagnostic technology for rotavirus
for diagnosis of infective (L3) stage larvae of Wucherereia bancrofti
in vector mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus
antigen capture ELISA test of JE
Identified few plants’
extract as replacement of fetal calf serum/blood/blood products and
animal products free media for the propagation of Leishmania parasites
Developed PCR based
diagnosis for VL from urine samples; identified cholesterol and
triglyceride as nutritional marker related to severity of VL infection
assay found useful tool for detecting leishmanial antigen in naturally
infected P. argentipes
Promising potential of a
chlamydial heat-shock protein (cHSP60) as a marker established for
predicting and/or confirming secondary infertility and genital tract
Disease Control Interventions
A new plant
based insecticide for mosquitoes control
botanical formulation for mosquito control; composition containing
herbal Solanum nigrum extract
of an intervention model for reversal
of fluorosis through nutritional intervention and safe drinking water
(drinking of traditional wells containing fluoride and
dilution of water with rain water and nutritional supplementation through
dietary supplementation of Chakoda Bhaji (Cassia Tora for
calcium, vitamin C and iron)
model of malaria control in Betul using indoor residual spray by
synthetic pyrethroids and replacing chloroquine by second line drug (SP+Pyrimethamine)
along with intensive surveillance for on spot diagnosis using Rapid
Diagnostic Test and use of larvivorous fishes. The intervention helped
in significant reduction in malaria cases and was found successful.
lipopeptide of Bacillus subtilis sp. subtilis (VCRC B471)
with potential to kill mosquito stages
release formulation of an indigenous IGR DPE-28; macrofilarcidal
activity of the fruit extract of Trachyspermum ammi against adult
bacterial culture media for the production of mosquito pathogenic
bacilli using industrial wastes
fermentation process using bird feather for the production of
for the production of mosquito oviposition attractant
B426 - a
bacterial metabolite from Pseudomonas fluoroscens showing
for the preparation of mosquito larvicidal formulation from Bacillus
thuringiensis var. israelensis
for the preparation of mosquito larvicide (B.sphaericus)
polystyrene (EPS) bead application as an adjunct to the mass drug
administration to bring about long-term reduction and sustenance in
vector density/transmission rates gravid mosquito-trap; mosquitocidal
ovitrap; and multi-angles viewer for easy rotation of specimen.
Use of GIS and RS for
prediction of kala-azar epidemic
A DNA based
multi epitope HIV 1 subtype C vaccine, ready for pre-clinical trials
HIV-1 sub-type C based DNA vaccine candidates and assessment of
prime-boost immunization strategy in mouse model
Dna J-leptospiral proteins identified as highly immunogenic molecules
capable of eliciting long lasting immunological memory
of a novel protective antigen (Dssd1) against lymphatic filariasis a
potential vaccine candidate antigen
Use of chimeric T
-helper B cell peptide in JE vaccine development
isolating a non toxinogenic V. cholerae strain
In collaboration with CDC,
, 6+2 plasmid-based recombinant virus for the H5N1 strain from
has been prepared using reverse genetics technology
genes exhibiting stage-specific expression in clinical isolates of Leishmania
donovani by AP-PCR and genomic microarrays.
centrin knockout mutant of L. donovani cell-line as a potential
vaccine candidate. This mutant parasite was granted US patent for its
genes (P27, P43, ASS, PSA) involved in differentiation process of the
parasite from L.donovani promastigote
to amastigote stages. These gene transcripts were demonstrated in human
tissue. Studies ongoing for
their functional characterization
population based and five hospital based cancer registries (expanded from
previously 11 registries) functioning under the National Cancer Registry Programme
cancers of the prostate, colon, rectum and liver showed a statistically
significant increase in incidence rates. Among women, cancers of the breast,
corpus uteri, ovary, thyroid, gallbladder and lung have shown a rise. Cancer
cervix recorded a decline in incidence rates across all registries
for screening for cancers of cervix, breast and oral cavity, has been
developed for three districts of Himachal Pradesh. The model components
include finalization of strategy; development of manuals & health
education aids; a baseline survey; infrastructure strengthening; and
training of professionals and para-professionals. Intervention is being
continued by the State health infrastructure.
guidelines for chronic myeloid leukaemia and buccal mucosa cancer have been
finalized. Work on 18 other
cancers is progressing.
In prostate cancer role of
CAG microsatellite repeats in AR gene, polymorphism/mutations in PSA gene
and p53 gene have been studied in risk and progression of cancer.
Significant association has been found between CAG repeat length less than
22 and genomic Arg. 72 pro. substitution in p53 gene with cancer prostate
compared to healthy controls.
Role of pesticide exposure
on causation of cancers screening for GST polymorphisms, Cyp17 T>C
polymorphism and p53 Arg72Pro polymorphism in breast cancer showed
significant high frequency of GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes in cancer cases
while no significant association had been found with Cyp17 and p53 codon 72
polymorphism with cancer.
role of candidate genes
mainly BRCA1, BRCA2 and CYP17 in Breast cancer susceptibility in Indian
mutation database for BRCA genes in Indian breast cancer patients, potential
founder mutation in Indian patients, high frequency of mutations in early
role of detoxifying enzyme genes such as GST in breast cancer in
In vitro culture
of tumour cells: A model established to evaluate cytotoxicity of
immunomodulator & chemotoxic drugs for application intravesically in an
attempt to give individualized treatment to bladder cancer patient with
tailoring of dose to individual need.
host immune factors (IL2) which could serve as target/gene therapy in
superficial Transitional cell carcinoma
Mission Mode Project on community control of Rheumatic Fever/ Rheumatic
Heart Diseases (RF/RHD) has four arms, epidemiology; molecular typing of
rheumatogenic strains; RF/RHD registries; and development of a vaccine
A model of surveillance provided by community-based registries by four
nodal registries is being replicated in other parts of the country. The
Group A Streptococcus (GAS) strains circulating in the community are
being subjected to molecular typing. The epidemiological components have
been completed at
. Surveys in school children (5-14 years) under registry component have
been undertaken at
. Satellite registries are functioning at Mumbai, Wayanad, Shimla,
, and Dibrugarh. The data indicates that the prevalence of RF RHD has
declined in these parts of the country. A significant development of the
has been the up scaling of this project to “Punjab Rheumatic and
Congenital Heart Disease Programme” from November, 2008.
Genetic susceptibility to
essential hypertension: A project on salt sensitivity and candidate gene
polymorphisms in essential hypertension in tribal population of Mizoram,
tea gardens of Assam and indigenous Assamese population, identified
subgroups based on genotype (Del/Del genotype in ACE gene) that are most
likely to benefit from targeted environmental changes (like changing
salt intake) related to progression of cardiovascular diseases.
Use of bedside ECHO for screening for
congenital heart disease in newborn can increase the detection rate as
compared to clinical criteria alone.
of psychiatric morbidity was found among all social classes in
, Chennai and
. The data would be useful in understanding urban mental health problems
and needs development of health
Mental health service needs and service delivery
models in natural disasters
: The prevalence of psychiatric morbidity was found to be
higher in affected group (61.35/1000) as compared to control group
(22.29/1000) in Ahmedabad, which was moderately affected. The most prevalent
psychiatric morbidity were the depressive disorders and recurrent depressive
disorders, followed by anxiety disorders and dissociative (conversion)
disorder and somatoform disorders in both (affected and control) groups.
Similarly, the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity was higher (67.04/1000)
in the affected group as compared to control group (22.93/1000) in
which was mildly affected. The most prevalent psychiatric morbidity was
depressive disorder and recurrent depressive disorder followed by anxiety
disorder, dissociative (conversion) disorder and somatoform disorder in both
affected and control group. The data from severely affected areas of Bhuj is
Tsunami disaster in coastal areas of Tamil Nadu: a
task force study has been
initiated at Chennai and Nagapattinam to find out the long term mental and
psychological problems in disaster affected population.
A registry of
epilepsy in pregnancy at Thiruvananthapuram observed malformations in 11.7%
and 3.3% of pregnancies with epilepsy and without epilepsy respectively,
with a large percentage of malformations being cardiac. Women with epilepsy
who were on AEDs and polytherapy were at higher risk of malformations.
contribution of prothrombotic state to the etiology of ischemic stroke
in the young,
observed that majority of the patients had multiple risk factors with large
infarcts in 40.7% of the cases by CT sacn/MRI. The homocysteine levels
correlated with vitamin B12 levels.
The stroke subtype was mainly of anterior circulation. Protein S
deficiency is the commonest deficiency (37.2%) followed by Protein C
deficiency (10%). A prospective longitudinal study of stroke in Kolkata on
natural course and outcome of the stroke patients, observed the incidence
rate of stroke/100,000 per year to be 143.84 in year 2003 and 91.26 in year
2007. The 30 day fatality rate
was higher in men than in women. Dementia was observed in 12.93% of stroke
Human and animal
studies on the effect of camel milk
in type 1 diabetes in population of north-west Rajasthan (Raica community)
indicated its important role in glycemic control, lipid profile and
quality of life. Genetic basis of resistance to Diabetes in Raica community
in being explored.
Registry of People with Diabetes with Young Age at Onset at eight
centres with aim to understand magnitude of problem, disease pattern or
types including the geographic variation and incidence and prevalence rate
Genomics of Type 1 Diabetes is ongoing at three centres viz
, Chennai and Kashmir with the aim of undertaking genomic characterization
of multiple autoimmune favouring HLA-DR3+ve haplotypes in type 1 diabetes
(T1D) in these ethnic groups of
. It also aims to evaluate levels of auto-antibodies present at the age of
onset in these population groups.
identify genes related to maturity onset diabetes of the young and early
onset diabetes have been started
In Phase I of the surveys, data on major NCD risk factors has
been collected in the urban and rural subjects aged 15-64 years in 7 States
of the country.
Global NCD risk factor InfoBase has
been pilot tested. The shortcomings and
suggestions for its improvement have been provided to WHO. The work of
updating the InfoBase with newer publications is progressing.
A model is being developed for Strengthening of existing
health system to address Non Communicable Diseases in
. During its first year household
screening questionnaire, manuals for health workers and Medical officers, a
risk score card has been prepared for action, including referrals to health
facility, assessment of workload on the staff and system.
Successful prenatal diagnosis of b
thalassemia major from maternal blood. This study shows that in a large
proportion of cases prenatal diagnosis for bthal mutation can be done from
mother’s blood without invasive fetal sampling.
Development of New simple technique for prenatal diagnosis of
haemophilia and thalassemia in 2nd trimester. As many of our
patient visit us late this technique was developed as quick, cheap
phenotypic diagnosis. Molecular biology expertise is not required for such
diagnosis and standard laboratory with well trained technician will be able
to do the diagnosis.
Development of a quick mismatched RFLP technique for
detecting the founder mutation in haemophilia. This will help in pre natal
diagnosis and carrier detection as each patient requires Rs.2.0 lakh/annum
Establishment of comparative genomic hybridization technique.
This will allow to detect new genetic changes in blood cancers and blood
Modulation of severity of haemophilia by co inherited
thrombophilia gene. This study shows that severe haemophilia patients who
inherit thrombophilia genes have milder presentation. This is an extremely
important discovery in the biology of congenital bleeding disorder and it
has immense implication in giving prognosis in a child with severe
Invitro expansion of umbilical cord stem cells. This
technique has important application in allogeneic hemopoietic stem cell
First Prenatal diagnosis in
for Pyruvate kinase deficiency in Red Cells.
contraceptive device Cu T 380 A demonstrated
its long term efficacy
acceptability and has been introduced
in National Family Welfare Programme
contraception (LNG 1.5 mg) demonstrated high efficacy and now
available in the country as a second option to prevent undesired
unprotected coitus). It is suggested as a over-the-counter product based
on the research findings of improved access through
Medical methods (Mefipristone
and misoprostol) for safe abortion services
made available in the country for early pregnancy termination
600 mcg demonstrated that it decreases blood loss and thereby an effective
method for prevention of post-partum haemorrhage (PPH) made available
through skilled birth attendants
(SBA) at the peripheral centres
mannose receptor for CD4 independent receptor binding protein responsible
for sexually transmitted HIV
80KDA human sperm antigen for development of contraceptive vaccine for male
Developed a diagnostic kit to
detect ovarian autoimmunity in infertility
clinics in the country and appropriate draft legislation has been prepared
and placed for public debate
ICMR/NAMS developed guidelines for Assisted
Reproductive Technologies (ART) for accreditation, supervision and regulation of ART clinics in the
country and appropriate draft legislation has been prepared and placed for
management of young infants (60 days) demonstrated that skill transfer to
village level worker (shishu- rakshaks) is possible for newborn care
trained and skilled workers are able to identify and treat sepsis
effectively in newborn by oral
(3 days) v/s oral Co-trimoxazole (5 days) in children for non-severe
pneumonia demonstrated that the existing treatment of Upper respiratory
tract infections (URI) in the National programme with oral Co-trimoxazole is
as effective as Amoxicillin in field conditions
Animal facilities for
National Centre for Primate Breeding and Research has
been established at Sasunavgar, Mumbai
National Animal Resource Facility (large animals) for
biomedical research established by ICMR in 100 acres land at
Diagnostics & new
methodology for the determination of vitamins A and E and estimation of
Ascorbic acid and Folic acid in Dried Blood Samples collected on filter
Established an in
vitro method using caco 2 cells to study the zinc and iron
bio-availability. These methods help in the biofortification programmes to
identify the best forms of micronutrients like zinc and iron.
Reductase activity has been demonstrated in human milk fraction which
explains the reason why iron is better absorbed through human milk
Zinc inhibits oxygen induced iron uptake and signaling and thus elicits its
cytoprotective effects. This also explains the inhibitive effect of zinc on
antiamyloidogenic potential of curcumin against trans thyretin related
amyloidosis. This relates to the studies published earlier which shows
benefits of curcumin in prevention and progression of Alzheimer’s disease
which happens to be an amyloid disorder.
programming of Insulin resistance: Several studies done earlier have shown
that maternal micronutrient deficiency can alter the body composition of
offspring, resulting in greater amounts of body fat, insulin resistance and
effects in glucose and lipid metabolism, leading to a syndrome called
metabolic syndrome, a fore runner to chronic diseases like diabetes,
hypertension and heart disease.
chromium deficiency increased body fat, especially central adiposity in
offspring. It altered adipocyte cytokine levels in circulation. It altered
lipid metabolism with increased circulating triglycerides and free fatty
acid levels. However, it did not alter gene expression. It caused impaired
glucose tolerance and increased insulin secretion. Rehabilitation could
partially correct these changes.
I) identified some micronutrients that are associated with diabetic
retinopathy. II) Identified aldose reductase and sorbitol levels as putative
biomarkers for diabetic retinopathy. III) Retinal degeneration in
spontaneous obese rat model was discovered. WNIN-Ob rat has opened the
unique opportunity of using this novel rat model for investigating molecular
basis and role of nutritional factors to attenuate obesity-associated ocular
complications. IV) Research on functional foods with respect to ALR2
inhibitors and antiglycating agents has led to the identification of
compounds from functional foods as molecular target based adjunct therapies
for diabetic complications.
Studies on relationship between Body Mass Index and
percent body fat in urban adults indicated
that cut-off levels of BMI to indicate Overweight/Obesity, derived based on
25% body fat among men and 30% among women using ROC (receiver operating
characteristic) curves, were found to be similar to the cut-off values for
Asian Indians suggested by WHO (BMI> 23kg/m2)
Evaluation of bio-effect of ultra-rice on iron status
of beneficiaries of mid-day meal programme
with iron when given in the mid-day meal to the schoolchildren for over a
year, resulted in a significant improvement in their haemoglobin levels and
It was also
observed that the children in control group who did not receive ultra rice
but got supervised meal as per the norms of MDM Programme also showed Hb
improvements with no change in iron status.
Studies on prevalence of overweight and obesity among
prevalence of overweight was 6% and it was higher in high socio economic
significantly higher among girls (7.1%) than in boys (4.4%)
higher duration of time spent in TV viewing and lesser time on participation
in outdoor games and household chores were the factors associated with
prevalence of obesity
and Drug Toxicology
Safety evaluation of traditional medicines
of a polyherbal drug, AB-FN-02 having potential anti-osteoarthritic activity
indicated that it was non-toxic when administered in traditional method with
milk and was found toxic when administered as a drug otherwise
of 5 herbo-mineral drugs (Bhasmas) to study the toxicity when administered
in therapeutic dose range indicated that they did not exhibit toxicity due
to heavy metals used.
In vitro chelating potential of thiamine in lead (Pb)
studies indicated that thiamine can chelate and thus reduce the uptake of
lead in intestines. This was confirmed using in vitro human intestinal cell
lines. Therefore correcting thiamine deficiency itself would reduce the risk
of lead toxicity in populations at risk.
Assessment of street foods
A study carried
out on street foods indicated that 50-70% of samples of poultry foods were
found to be contaminated with disease carrying bacteria like Bacillus cereus
and Staphylococcus aureus.
salads were found to be contaminated with Salmonella due to improper
Education and Communication
Study on coverage
of nutrition related topics in print media
It was observed
that the vernacular (Telugu) dailies covered more number of nutrition
related articles than the English newspapers and most of these were more on
conventional foods rich in nutrients
published more articles on lifestyle foods like chocolates, beverages,
Nutrition components in school science textbooks
The school science textbooks of NCERT and AP State
Education Board allocated
lesser space for biology in relation to physical sciences in higher classes
(VII and above). Nutrition topics were almost absent in high school
component is systematically organized at primary school level (till V
Class), but not in high school textbooks. The nutrition topics covered in
textbooks beyond class III, deal only with food groups or nutrient
deficiency disorders. Important topics such as nutrition and growth, link
between childhood malnutrition and non-communicable diseases in adulthood,
adolescent nutrition, nutrition for girl child, hidden hunger, lifestyle
factors and obesity, unhealthy foods, fortification etc. are not covered in
studies on Institutional approaches to nutrition communication
Case studies on
approaches taken by various organizations for nutrition communication in
different sectors (Government, NGO and R&D) indicated that Nutrition
communication activities lack proper planning, monitoring and evaluation
components. This makes it difficult to attribute any change in behaviour to
a particular communication process.
The selection of
specific communication approaches is not primarily based on normative value
of the approach but purely based on institutional factors and expectations
including organisation’s goals, bureaucratic dynamics and budgetary
Traditional Medicine Research
Data-base has been created on
about 500 medicinal plants/formulations used by traditional practitioners
(Non-codified system), and scientific validation (safety, efficacy, mode of
action and clinical trials) of selected leads under a multicentric project
at 5 states across the
. The database provides detailed information on botanical aspects,
ethonomedicinal usages, pharmacological activities, chemical composition
etc, of each plant along with references.
The information on medicinal
plants used for treatment by the traditional practitioners of the
district has been documented has led to documentation of 115 medicinal
plants belonging to 56 families to cure 71 types of diseases.
A Garden for Medicinal Plants
of Western Ghats has been established. The total number of medicinal plants
is about 250 out of which 79 are herbs, 58 shrubs, 33 climbers and 96
species are trees. Each plant is provided with information board regarding
scientific name, English name, vernacular names in various languages and
Established Museum for
Ethonommedicinal plants of
. This Museum also has a crude
drug depository of various parts of medicinal plants in which 280 such
samples are collected and displayed appropriately.
on Indian Medicinal Plants: 7 volumes have been published. Each monograph
includes regional names of the medicinal plant, its Sanskrit synonyms as
well as the Ayurvedic description (wherever available), ethnobotanical
studies, apart from the habitat and the parts used, properties and uses,
details of botanical, pharmacognostical, chemical, pharmacological and
clinical data. About 1600 medicinal plants species have been covered.
Quality Standards of Indian
Medicinal Plants: 7 volumes have been published. Each monograph
focuses on the diagnostic features and phytochemical studies, including
markers besides having information on Pharmacological, clinical,
toxicological aspects along with dosage, adulterants/substitutes etc
Medicinal plants monographs on
diseases of public health importance: During the year the monograph on Perspectives of Indian Medicinal
Plants in the area of Liver Disorders was published. The draft monographs of
diabetes mellitus, filariasis and other areas are in different stages of
review. These monographs aims at integration of leads/scientific information
on diseases (including etiopathogenesis) and plant drugs as given in the
ancient texts (ISM) and Allopathic system of medicine and the
multidisciplinary research data generated on these plant remedies with focus
on pharmacological, toxicological, clinical, phytochemical, and
Health of Tribal Populations
Indian Council of Medical Research
(ICMR) has 28 institutes/ centers in different parts of
. The following institutes/centres have been doing considerable amount of
work related to health in tribal populations:
for Tribals (RMRC),
- Regional Medical Research Centre (RMRC), Port Blair;
- Regional Medical Research Centre (RMRC), Bhubaneshwar;
- Regional Medical Research Centre (RMRC), Dibrugarh; and
- National Institute of Nutrition (NIN),
ICMR Headquarters in an extramural
mode has also been carrying out/supporting research in tribal belt.
Research being carried out by ICMR
is with the objectives to generate health and nutritional data and
evaluation of various interventional programmes of Government of India as
well as of respective state Governments. Applied basic and clinical research
have been done extensively especially for malaria and tuberculosis control.
Efforts have also been made to develop various health service delivery
models through action oriented research.
of data on Health & Nutrition Profile of tribal population
National Institute of Nutrition (NIN),
has been doing extensive work on diet and nutritional status of rural
population since 1972. They have also carried out three time point surveys
in tribal population of 9 states viz. Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra
Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and
Baseline survey in 1985-87
First repeat survey in 1998-99, and
Second repeat survey in 2007-08
Investigations were mainly carried out on
Socio-economic and demographic particulars, Anthropometry, Clinical
examination and Diet survey. The measurement of Blood Pressure for the
assessment of Hypertension in adult males & females (≥ 20 years)
was done during only in survey carried out in 2007-08 in all the 9 states.
The nutritional deficiency signs in preschool
children have shown a decline from 1985-87 to 1998-99 surveys, PEM from 4.0%
to 0.5%, Bitot spots from 2.1% to 0.5% and Angular stomatitis from 2.0% to
1.3%. Average consumption (g/CU/day) for food stuffs like milk & milk
products, fats & oils, sugar & jaggery were found out to be very low
as compared to recommended levels.
NNMB’s second tribal repeat surveys on diet and
nutritional status of tribal population in
– Time trends
change in the dietary patterns of tribal population in the last three
decades. However, consumption of income-elastic foods like pulses, GLVs,
Sugar and Jaggery has marginally gone up
severe undernutrition has significantly come down from 10% to 5% among both
the rural and tribal communities. However, there was a notable shift from
moderate to mild malnutrition indicating betterment of nutritional status
status of tribes of MP,
and Orissa were poor compared to those in the other states
Applied basic and
Genetic disorders like Sickle cell anaemia &
Thalassemia have been studied extensively and different means and methods
for effective counseling such as group discussion, interpersonal
communication, and education through posters, pamphlets & Audio
Visual aids have been demonstrated.
A preliminary study on hypertension conducted among
the Nicobarese of Car Nicobar showed 50% prevalence. Study carried out in 3
distinct ethnic populations of Mizos, indigenous Assamese and Tea Garden
Workers (TGWs) indicated a prevalence of hypertension as 60.8% in TGWs. In
indigenous Assamese population, prevalence of hypertension was 33.3% and in
Mizos, prevalence was 15.9%. Treatment & Counseling is being provided by
the Centers in collaboration with the Health Services. Awareness generation
camps and meetings have also been organized from time to time about dietary
modification & life style changes.
is a sentinel site by Government of India, one of the seven sites throughout
the country for conducting tuberculosis prevalence study. RMRC, Port Blair
has developed the facilities for culture & facilities for monitoring MDR
& XDR Tuberculosis. Center also organizes awareness programmes
periodically highlighting the importance of DOTS programme.
The centres at Jabalpur and Port Blair are also
working towards the treatment and prevention of malaria like replacement of
DDT with synthetic pyrethoid for indoor residual spray and prescribing
Artesunate Combination Therapy (ACT) as first line of treatment and Sulpha
Pyrimethamine as second line of treatment resulted in reduction of
prevalence of malaria from 36% in 2004 to 20% in 2008.
Other measures like distribution of insecticide
impregnated bed nets, monitoring of usage and awareness programmes to
encourage the use of these has also been taken by the RMRC, Port Blair.
Center at Dibrugarh is engaged in developing newer antimalarial based on
folklore & traditional medicine- mainly plant based antimalarial and is
also running a malaria clinic. RMRC, Dibrugarh has been declared as Centre
of Excellence for training in Malariology by the Govt. of India.
In tribal population of Orissa, major problems
identified are malaria, hypertension, diarrheal diseases, nutritional
deficiencies and access to medical care. RMRC, Bhubaneshwar is coordinating
several intervention based activities with Government of Orissa.
Research in Tribal Population
A study to develop capacity building of primitive
tribes for health care has been operational in 15 districts of 7 states of
the country. Under the study
link persons (one Tribal Welfare Volunteer and one Dai Volunteer) have been
identified for every 500 population and trained respectively for treatment
of minor ailments and safe delivery. Appropriate kits have also been
provided to them. The volunteers are also working for motivating the
community to avail nearby health facilities in case of seriously ill
patients or high-risk pregnant women. This model has been shown to be quite
successful in Tripura where the evaluation results are available.
& Tropical Medicine
Working Group / Joint Steering Committee meetings under following agreements
held during 2008 -09
in October, 2008 in
ICMR- INSERM in November, 2008 in
ICMR-University of Sydney / George Institute of
(through teleconference) in March, 2009
meetings / workshops held during 2008-09
Indo-US workshop (under Indo-US Statement) in Environmental
& Occupational Health -July, 2008 in
Indo-German workshop on Zoonoses and Animal Models of
Infectious Diseases (under ICMR- IGSCID Programme) in September, 2008 in
Indo-French workshop (under ICMR-INSERM MOU) on Translational
Research in November, 2008 in
Indo-German workshop (under ICMR-BMBF arrangement) on
Bioethics in Oct/November, 2008 in
(8 Indian scientists trained)
Indo-German workshop (under ICMR-BMBF arrangement) on
Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases in November, 2008 in
Indo-Australia workshop (under ICMR –
/ George Institute MOU) on Diabetes in
in November, 2008
Indo-Canada workshop (under ICMR-CIHR MOU) on Childhood
in January, 2009
International Fellowship Programme
For Indian biomedical scientists:
to augment capacity strengthening of institutions involved in basic,
applied, epidemiological and clinical sciences. ICMR International Fellowships have been awarded to five Senior &
ten Young Indian scientists for the year 2008-09.
For scientists from developing countries:
for capacity building and human resource development of biomedical
scientists working in developing countries by offering them opportunities to
work in Indian institutes/laboratories. One
scientist each from
has been selected to visit ICMR institutes (NARI, Pune and NIMR,
respectively) for training under this programme.
Publications and Information
Journal of Medical Research
Impact factor (IF) of the IJMR increased from 0.869
in 2005 to 1.224 in 2006 and 1.670 in 2007
Poverty and Human Development
Nutrition and Bone Health
Metal Toxicity and Health Implications.
Varshik Prativedan (2005-2006)
‘Bhartiya Anopheles Machcharon ki Sachitra
Pehchan Kunji’, Hindi version of ‘Pictorial Identification key for
Indian Anophelines’ of NIMR,
Biomedical Informatics Centres at SGPGI, Lucknow, PGI, Chandigarh, AIIMS,
New Delhi, NIRRH, Mumbai, TRC, Chennai, NICED, Kolkata, NIN, Hyderabad and
RMRIMS, Patna with the coordinating unit at ICMR Headquarters, New Delhi,
to develop new methodologies and solutions for prevention and
amelioration of diseases of national importance; to develop and support
databases of specific clinical findings and Biomedical data;
to promote modern biology research in host institute and regional
medical colleges; and to
increase awareness of recent developments in modern biology through
workshops and training programs.
Number of papers as also coverage in SCI/JCR in 2007
was 444 and 67.34% respectively.
and Information Sciences
E-Consortia – Subscribes to the ICMR E-Consortia with the
five journals viz., Lancet, Science, Nature, NEJM and
Science that can be accessed through IP address of the Institute
Consortia: Around 1500+ e-journals with full text facility can be accessed by ICMR
and its institutes.
Health Full Text Database: The full text e-database ProQuest Health was renewed
for 6 sites (ICMR Hqrs., New Delhi; NIMR, Delhi;NIOH, Ahmedabad; NICED,
Kolkata; NIN, Hyderabad;RMRC, Dibrugarh). ProQuest Health and Medical
Complete provides in-depth coverage from over 1,390 publications with more
than 1,140 available in full text and of these, over 940 include MEDLINE®
Property Rights and Technology Transfer
16 patents have
been filed at Indian Patent Office generated through intramural (14) and
extramural (1) research. 10 Indian patents and one International phase
application (extramural) were granted during the last three years.