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The baby shows his affection normally by hugging, patting or kissing the loved object or person. Affection develops primarily in relation to people and is normally directed towards familiar persons.

The home environmnet plays a vital role in his social development. His social behaviour at different stages consists of turning to voices, smiling, imitation of speech, gestures, reacting differently to different situations, cooperating and so on. His play in the begining consists of stimulating his sense organs, later playing with toys and other children. In his babyhood he is mostly an onlooker and plays parallel to other children.

He learns concepts by sensory exploration like listening, touching, smelling etc. In his babyhood, he learns about reacting to colours. Foundations of moral behaviour are laid in babyhood. His personality is formed from interaction with the parents, siblings, other family members and his environment. Babyhood is a critical period in personality development because the foundations are laid now and upon this his personality will be built as he grows into an adult.

2-6 Years

The period between 2 and 6 years may be called early childhood. This is the preschool age. Now the child is no longer a spectator, he wants to explore and he is more independent. His vocabulary increases rapidly, partly due to teaching and partly due to curiosity. He learns specific words.

During this stage emotionality is very high like temper tantrums and intense fears. The common emotions experienced at this stage are anger, fear, jealousy, affection, curiosity and joy. Anger is very common and is expressed through temper tantrums characterized by crying, screaming, kicking, falling on the floor etc. Fears also increase at this stage because the child recognizes the potential dangers better. Jealousy appears as an angry resentment towards people, for eg., towards a new arrival, sibling etc. Jealousy decreases as the child's interest broadens but excess of this may sometimes lead to neurotic traits like thumb sucking, bedwetting etc. This period is usually called a 'Questioning age'. They are curious about their own bodies and that of the adults. He experiences joy when he discovers something new and teasing and playing are common. He expresses joy with smiling, laughing, jumping and clapping hands.

In the home the child learns to love and to be loved. This determines his success in his later relationships. Social behaviour starts at this age and will be in the form of negativism, imitation, rivalry, quarrelling,


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