The baby shows his affection normally by hugging,
patting or kissing the loved object or person. Affection develops
primarily in relation to people and is normally directed towards
The home environmnet plays a vital role in his social development.
His social behaviour at different stages consists of turning
to voices, smiling, imitation of speech, gestures, reacting
differently to different situations, cooperating and so on.
His play in the begining consists of stimulating his sense
organs, later playing with toys and other children. In his
babyhood he is mostly an onlooker and plays parallel to other
He learns concepts by sensory exploration like listening,
touching, smelling etc. In his babyhood, he learns about reacting
to colours. Foundations of moral behaviour are laid in babyhood.
His personality is formed from interaction with the parents,
siblings, other family members and his environment. Babyhood
is a critical period in personality development because the
foundations are laid now and upon this his personality will
be built as he grows into an adult.
The period between 2 and 6 years may be called early childhood.
This is the preschool age. Now the child is no longer a spectator,
he wants to explore and he is more independent. His vocabulary
increases rapidly, partly due to teaching and partly due to
curiosity. He learns specific words.
During this stage emotionality is very high like temper tantrums
and intense fears. The common emotions experienced at this
stage are anger, fear, jealousy, affection, curiosity and
joy. Anger is very common and is expressed through temper
tantrums characterized by crying, screaming, kicking, falling
on the floor etc. Fears also increase at this stage because
the child recognizes the potential dangers better. Jealousy
appears as an angry resentment towards people, for eg., towards
a new arrival, sibling etc. Jealousy decreases as the child's
interest broadens but excess of this may sometimes lead to
neurotic traits like thumb sucking, bedwetting etc. This period
is usually called a 'Questioning age'. They are curious about
their own bodies and that of the adults. He experiences joy
when he discovers something new and teasing and playing are
common. He expresses joy with smiling, laughing, jumping and
In the home the child learns to love and to be loved. This
determines his success in his later relationships. Social
behaviour starts at this age and will be in the form of negativism,
imitation, rivalry, quarrelling,