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frequency of attendance, more family planning and immunization contacts and decrease in hospitalizations.

(d) Maternal behaviour and use of social support: There was better maternal-infant interaction at 4 months and less authoritarian attitudes towards child rearing at twelve months of age. Visited mothers also had improved diet, indulged less in smoking and they talked more frequently about difficulties to their social networks, had labour room companions and felt that fathers paid greater interest in their pregnancies. More mothers with greater risk in study group returned to school, had less pregnancies subsequently, increased spacing and increased length of maternal employment. The programme mothers provided better home environment for their infant's development, had more knowledge about babies, greater satisfaction with mothering and were more responsive to their babies.

(e) Child abuse and neglect: There was not much change in the study group but control group had higher incidence of dysfunction.

In a study from India (Gupta et at, 1984), the impact of the ICDS programme was studied by assessing changes in feeding practices, growth and development, prevalence of malnutrition and utilisation of health services. A non ICDS area was used as a control.

In the study area, majority of children were weaned earlier (6-12 months) as compared to majority of controls (weaned later 12-18 months). Weight for age was higher and prevalence of severe PEM (Protein Energy Malnutrition) was significantly lower in study area. Milestones of development were comparatively delayed in the control group and immunization status of children was much lower than study group.

Mothers of the majority of children in the ICDS group availed antenatal care services and also utilised trained dai or ANM. Health care services were better utilised in the study group.

Another form of home care programe carried out in the U.K. with great success has been the voluntary befriending scheme. .In this, volunteers become companions to young mothers in order to improve their child rearing skills and well being. Evidence from this programme points to the advantages of a family support model for intervention. There is special emphasis on the 'hard to reach' or high risk families. The befriender provides family counselling and support both in relation to child rearing and other family problems. The scheme has advantages not only with regard to acceptance and availability but also in the quality of


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