We have a better understanding of the role of ecological
factors in child health, like poverty, maternal stress and
emotional health, family stress, community resources and governmental
Cost-containment pressures make the use of home visitors
Increased pressures from funding resources are encouraging
programmes to demonstrate inter agency and inter disciplinary
coordination and cooperation.
There has been a renewed interest in issues of family
and prevention. It is now clear that societal changes like
increased mobility of families with decreased extended family
and community supports, and increased participation of mothers
in the labour-force have had major impact on families and
their support systems. These changes contribute to interest
in family support programmes that work with families to build
strengths and prevent problems before they occur, supporting
families across wide range of family forms and cultural settings
and preventive, nonjudgemental support to all families.
Role of social support in multi-component family services
such as prenatal, intrapartum, new born and well-child care.
Participation of interest in self-help programme in parenting
and child health.
Outcome in low birth weight and other neonates
risks is influenced by ecological factors of home, family
and community resources as well as quality of medical care
and severity of original insult.
Early interventions in children
Early intervention encompasses a range of stimulations and
training activities for infants and young children. The type
of programme provided is designed to reduce the cumulative
effects of handicap or deprivation in infancy and childhood.
Thus, intervention may be aimed at motor or cognitive development
or may be broadbased transdisciplinary therapies.
These interventions are targeted towards two major child
groups (1) Those at environmental risks and (2) Those who
are, or are presumed to be biologically impaired. Interventions
for sociocultural deprivation have often taken a psychoeducational
approach, focussing on intellectual, developmental and enhancement
of parent-child relationships. Longitudinal studies have shown
those interventions to be effective in preventing deficits.