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may also suffer from low self esteem based on their status in society which automatically puts them at a disadvantage.

  1. Migration - Parents who have recently migrated or are in the process of migrating, themselves go through stress because of which they are unable to satisfy the emotional needs of their children. Uprooting from their places of origin, finding new jobs and the lack of social groups in the new place make these families isolated which has its influence on the children.


a) Interaction
As noted earlier in the manual, the stability of a family is one of the most important factors in healthy development. Family discord, absence of affectional ties and presence of quarrels and fights affect a child adversely. A child coming from a family with interactional problems is prone to nave emotional difficulties and poor scholastic performance. Children have more problems if the disharmony occurs in the parental unit, though any family discord has adverse effects. A child from a noisy, quarrelsome family might take on to delinquency, perform badly in school or be depressed.

b) Organisation
Family organization refers to the structure of the family i.e. the number of people, presence of parents, leadership patterns and necessary functions of a family such as disciplining patterns. An overcrowded family, with multiple parenting can lead to problems in the children. On the other hand small families which are socially isolated or where both parents work may make the child prone to emotional and intellectual deprivation. Whatever the size of the family, presence of factors that lead to child neglect and understimulation are identified as being high risk.

c) Parenting
The presence of too many parental figures might lead to inconsistent disciplining. On the other hand the absence of one or both parents in a family leads to a number of emotional and behavioural patterns in the child. Families where one parent is away for a long time, or there has been a divorce or death, put the child in a vulnerable position.

d) Routine
The absence of a family routine is also an important risk factor -routine includes, rules for various acts such as sleeping, bathing, work and play. A

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