may also suffer from low self esteem based on their status
in society which automatically puts them at a disadvantage.
- Migration - Parents who
have recently migrated or are in the process of migrating,
themselves go through stress because of which they are unable
to satisfy the emotional needs of their children. Uprooting
from their places of origin, finding new jobs and the lack
of social groups in the new place make these families isolated
which has its influence on the children.
2. FAMILY ORGANIZATION AND INTERACTIONS
As noted earlier in the manual, the stability of a family
is one of the most important factors in healthy development.
Family discord, absence of affectional ties and presence of
quarrels and fights affect a child adversely. A child coming
from a family with interactional problems is prone to nave
emotional difficulties and poor scholastic performance. Children
have more problems if the disharmony occurs in the parental
unit, though any family discord has adverse effects. A child
from a noisy, quarrelsome family might take on to delinquency,
perform badly in school or be depressed.
Family organization refers to the structure of the family
i.e. the number of people, presence of parents, leadership
patterns and necessary functions of a family such as disciplining
patterns. An overcrowded family, with multiple parenting can
lead to problems in the children. On the other hand small
families which are socially isolated or where both parents
work may make the child prone to emotional and intellectual
deprivation. Whatever the size of the family, presence of
factors that lead to child neglect and understimulation are
identified as being high risk.
The presence of too many parental figures might lead to inconsistent
disciplining. On the other hand the absence of one or both
parents in a family leads to a number of emotional and behavioural
patterns in the child. Families where one parent is away for
a long time, or there has been a divorce or death, put the
child in a vulnerable position.
The absence of a family routine is also an important risk
factor -routine includes, rules for various acts such as sleeping,
bathing, work and play. A