Institutes and Universities Working on Vector-borne Diseases

VECTORS AND VECTOR BORNE DISEASES IN INDIA


Many vector-borne diseases transmitted by arthropods and animals are prevalent in India and these have emerged as a serious public health problem. Vectors transmit disease pathogens either through bites after biologically transforming the pathogens within themselves or transmit them mechanically. The major VBDs in India are malaria, filariasis, dengue, chikungunya and Japanese encephalitis transmitted by mosquitoes, and visceral leishmaniasis by sand flies. Visceral leishmaniasis and lymphatic filariasis are endemic and persisting causing considerable morbidity. Malaria and Japanese encephalitis occur in epidemic form almost on an annual basis in some part of the country or the other. About 1-2 million new cases of malaria and about 1000 deaths occur every year. Japanese encephalitis is currently endemic in 135 districts in 15 states and Union Territories of India. Chikungunya and dengue outbreaks are occurring more frequently and explosively and from both urban and rural areas of the country. In addition to these vectors, there are other insect species that transmit diseases. Some of these insects transmit pathogens to animals and from infected animals to humans and these diseases are zoonotic vector-borne diseases. Vector species that transmit the type of pathogens/parasites and cause the diseases in humans are listed below:

Vector species

Pathogens

Diseases Transmitted

Mosquitoes

Anopheles species

Plasmodium species

Malaria

Culex quinquefasciatus

Ochletorotatusus nivieus

Mansonia annulifera, M. Indiana, M. uniformis

Wuchereria bancrofti

Wuchereria bancrofti

Brugia malayi

Nocturnal periodic bancroftian filariasis

Sub-periodic bancroftian filariasis

Nocturnal periodic malayan filariasis

Aedes aegypti, Ae. albopictus

Dengue virus serotypes I, II, III, IV

 

Chikungunya virus

Dengue fever and its two complicated manifestations -  dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS)

Chikungunya fever

Culex. tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. vishnui, Cx. vishnui Cx. pseudovishnui, Cx. gelidus, & Cx. fuscocephala

Japanese encephalitis virus

Fever, acute encephalitis  

Culex species

West Nile virus

Viral encephalitis

Sand flies

Phlebotomus argentipes

Leishmania donovani

Visceral leishmaniasis

Ph. papatasi, Ph. sergentii

Leishmania tropica, Leishmania major

Cutaneous leishmaniasis

Phlebotomus species

Chandipura virus

Chandipura viral encephalitis

Other Vectors

Xenopsylla cheopis (Oriental rat flea) is ecto-parasite on rats, which are reservoirs for the pathogen

Yesrsinia pestis (bacteria)

Bubonic plague, Murine typhus (endemic typhus)

Leptotrombidium deliense & Schoengastiella ligula (mites) are ecto-parasites on rats

Orienta tsutsugamushi (bacteria)

Scrub typhus (tropical typhus)

Pediculus humanus (body lice)

Bacteria

Lice-borne relapsing fever, and skin infections (secondary)

Ornithodorus sp (Soft ticks)

Bacteria

Tick-borne relapsing fever

Haemaphysalis spinigera-major vector (ticks)

Virus

Kyasanur forest disease

Hyalomma species (Hard-bodied ticks)

Virus

Cremian-congo haemorrhagic fever

Fruit bats and pigs

Virus

Nipah fever

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